Male infertility: the main causes and methods of diagnosis

The last time a serious medical problem and a social was infertility in men and in the diagnosis of the various reasons for the inability of the fertility of the offspring.

Male infertility is a male reproductive function. It is a consequence of changes in the quality and quantity of sperm in the result of the migrated inflammatory processes of the genital organs, infectious diseases and chronic diseases.

Today, the sterility in men way, in equality of conditions with a history of infertility in women. According to statistics, the proportion of couples without children for the guilt of men is 45%. If, during a year in the regular services of the intercourse the wife does not reach pregnancy, a sexual partner is considered sterile.

Male infertility

Causes of male infertility

There are many different causes, which eventually will not allow the man to become a father. Only correctly performed, the diagnosis can be set the target of diagnosis of the disease. The main causes of infertility in men are:

  1. Varicocele is one of the reasons for inferiority. On the basis of the pathology est varicose vascular extension of seeds, of umbilical cord, which serves as a channel of extraction of sperm. Due to a disease, the increase of the temperature in the testicles, which over time negatively influences the state of the sperm. To determine the existence of a varicocele can only the doctor.
  2. Lesions in the genital organs, and defects in its development – the essential reason why the man is not capable of fertilization. The main defects are: the presence of a single egg, popushina in the scrotum, a defect in the development of the penis in which the urethra opens below the top of the head.
  3. Genetic mistakes – are the cause not only of male infertility, but the birth of children with genetic abnormalities that are transmitted by inheritance. The presence of errors at the genetic level, sometimes, does not allow to apply the method of IVF, since there is the possibility of the birth of a child with a serious illness and, in consequence, costly procedure may be ineffective.
  4. Of the sexually transmitted infections (trichomoniasis, syphilis, and others).
  5. Infections that can cause damage to cells, whose function is the production of sperm: brucellosis, mumps, and other.
  6. The inflammation in the prostate and ureters.
  7. The reasons are of a sexual nature is the lack of erection or in whole, the absence of ejaculation. To solve this type of problems will help you to not andrologist, sexologist.
  8. Growths on the testicles – benign and malignant are the main causes of disorders of sexual potency and male infertility.
  9. The reduction and weakness of the immune system of the body.
  10. The regular consumption of drugs and antibiotics for a long time.

Types of male infertility

The inability of the conception is based on two characteristics: anatomical and functional.

Infertility secretory – develops on the ground of the violation of wear by friction and the maturation of sperm. Can be both temporary and permanent.

Temporary violations are related to damaging factors: the increase of the temperature of the body, the environment, harmful, and toxic evaporation, and so on. Eliminating the impact of these factors, it becomes a natural process of wear and tear by friction and the maturation of sperm.

Permanent infertility is the reason is genetic abnormalities or defects, violations of development of channels in the epididymis, testis. The defeat of the cells tubular system can be observed in case of disease or epidemic parotitis, as well as the autoimmune disease. The atrophy of the cells of the tubules and the defeat of the appendices of the testis is an irreversible phenomenon.

Infertility excretory – the cause is the difficulty for the passage of the sperm for the seed generated along. This obstacle step can cause adhesions in the urinary system appendage of one of the testicles. The sperm cannot enter the semen. Usually, the adhesions formed due to inflammatory processes, benign and malignant tumors in the tissue of the testes, due to the injuries received.

Infertility autoimmune is a result of the violation of the barrier between the vessels and canals for the delivery of the seed. In the blood begins to form the immune response – their own sperm body accepts oblivious to the invasion. The result – antisperm antibodies start to reduce the mobility of sperm, and finally the last they perish at all.

Infertility sochetannoe – the cause is the violation of the maturation of the sperm, as well as the existence of additional barriers to ejaculation.

Infertility relative – is determined when visible the causes of the lack: semen analysis corresponds to the norm for the sexual life of obstacles, but the long-awaited conception stepping can't. The cause of this type of infertility is the violation of the hygiene during the sexual act.

The diagnosis of infertility in men

After a medical examination of a man is prescribed the analysis of spermogrammi, which is repeated two to three times. Prior to this, it is recommended to abstain from sexual intercourse and masturbation in a period of two to three days.

The standard of the amount of ejaculator is three to five ml, but if the amount is less than the broom of the norm – there is talk of hypothyroidism on the testes. When the sperm volume is less than two ml, even in spite of the positive analysis, to conceive a child is unlikely, because the volume of sperm small. A milliliter of semen should contain not less than twenty million sperm, low number of speaks of oligozoospermia, which develops on the background of hypothyroidism on the testes or unilateral obstruction of the seed of the tracks. This leads to the infertility of men.

Printing to two shutter in the absence of sperm in the semen conversation is azoospermia. To fertilize the egg, it requires only one sperm, but with a lower number of up to a million of conception becomes impossible. At the time of ejaculation on the cervix will fall out of two hundred million sperm, more than half of which will overcome the cervical mucus plug tubule, but only a small part of the sperm will reach the mouth of the tubes of the uterus. In connection with the fact that the egg is in a fallopian tube, it enters only half of the sperm cells. Means less of them in the ejaculate, the less is the chance of conception. The critic of the reduction of the rules of the sperm cells confirms the diagnosis of male infertility.

The basic amount of sperm has rectilinear character of the movements or chaotic. Reduce the number of motile sperm is called asthenozoospermia, their lack of necrozoospermia.

The diagnosis

The frequency of sex depends on the mobility and the amount ejaculator of the sperm. Therefore, the patient when making the diagnosis of infertility it is recommended to abstain from sexual intercourse, to obtain reliable results spermogrammi. Doing a row, the act of sexual intercourse, the semen loses its fertility, and emergency contraception is not necessary.

If couples do not abstain from sexual relations prior to conception, they may be infertile, because of frequent acts of sperm in the semen, increases the number of immature sperm with low vitality, mobility. The greater number of mature, viable sperm appears in the semen only after several days of abstinence.

The morphological analysis evaluates the percentage of normal sperm. If the majority of these, half have a complete structure, this is normal, reduce the number of so-called teratozoospermia. Many men spend the survey, they discover sometimes agglutination of sperm, which contradicts to the normal of the indicators. In the semen should not be areas of clusters of spermatozoa, as well as seeing this semen is heterogeneous, while the areas have a greater density and its intense hue, and also slow the movement speed of sperm. This change of the sperm, leading to infertility, are the consequence of the inflammatory disease of the pelvis and of the hormonal alterations in the body.

A large number of leukocytes warns about the inflammatory processes in the urogenital tract, gastrointestinal.

Also in the survey requires the consultation of a urologist for the detection of the following diseases: vezikulita, prostatitis, and epididymitis.

The functioning of the reproductive system in men

The sperm cell is the reproductive cell of male, which contains paternal genes. The information on the genes focuses on the sperm head, and thanks to the tail of the sperm moves and reaches the egg. First it moves along the channels that pass into tubule direct and more in the appendage of the testis.

The length of the seminiferous tubules is, in general, of about five hundred meters. Moving slowly by the channels, the sperm has time to mature and is able to fertilize the egg. In the epididymis of the testis and is celebrated the final phase of his growth, and then passes through the seed displays the seed flow of bubbles. Here, the sperm accumulate and then are mixed with epithelial secret that contains in itself the nutrients designed for the sperm. Subsequently, the seeds, the bubble, the semen begins to evacuate in the period of ejaculation, mingling with the secret of the prostate. This formed liquid has received the name of sperm.

The main cause of infertility in men are: shutter channel, when the sperm is not rend of the urethra due to the barriers, the violation of the function secretory.

The treatment of infertility in men

There are many methods for treating this male illness:

  1. Surgery – varicocele cure your surgery, but the blockage of the duct can only be considered. The permeability is recovered after a procedure of vasectomy. If there is no sperm in the semen, it is possible to obtain from the testis or its appendages (the epididymis.) and then apply to the artificial insemination through.
  2. The treatment of the disease in the background of infections – the antibiotics fight infectious diseases sexual way, but the therapy with antibiotics sometimes repair the problem of fertility is not in the state.
  3. The treatment of sexual problems – medications and the professional advice of a specialist can help you resolve these pathologies, such as: erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.
  4. Hormone therapy in the background – this treatment is allocated in the event of a deviation of the concentration of certain hormones in the blood.
  5. Artificial insemination is obtaining sperm cells with normal (donor, after the extraction), the entry in the genital tract of women, as well as the fertilization, without passing through the body of the woman (intracytoplasmic injection). It is very rare men's fertility does not recover, but the couple is still the opportunity to use donor sperm.

Risk factors

The factors causing the inability to conceive, they are:

  • The use of illegal drugs,
  • The excessive consumption of alcohol
  • The excess of body weight,
  • Smoking,
  • Infectious diseases,
  • The testicular trauma,
  • The toxic substances and evaporation,
  • The violation of the temperature in the testes,
  • Has transferred the operation of the abdominal cavity, pelvic, vasectomy,
  • Innate alteration of the fertility of men or of their close relatives,
  • Pathology – the variety of tumors, chronic diseases,
  • Surgical interventions,
  • The specific methods of treatment – laser therapy, and much more.

The prevention of infertility

The news of infertility becomes for the man a terrible and heavy surprise. Women also experience a shock to learn of the futility partner, but this can not compare with the pain, through which passes the man at the time of the receipt of the news, because in the subconscious of the majority of men identify their manhood with the function of the sexual organs. And such news about the inability to have children causing a painful blow to the ego. Sometimes the man leaves the family, thinking that it has the right to create a serious relationship. Often, this situation ends the alcoholism, the relations between the spouses experience changes is not the best.

Many men refuse to surveys, because they are afraid to hear about the infertility. But if in the family there is a problem with the concept, it is necessary to follow the recommendations of the specialists, how to keep your sex life active. In the current situation, partners sometimes neglect to love the games, petting and only think to follow the advice of your doctor. This has a negative effect on the relationship between the partners.

The incompatibility between the spouses

Some couples produces the factor of the infertility, when the body of men and women produce specific proteins. It is a disastrous act in the sperm and not allow you to interact with the egg. This is the reason of the incompatibility of the partners. In such cases, it is recommended to study android of the blood and the semen of antibodies.

Treatment of male infertility


In the diet, it is mandatory the presence of the following products: dried fruits, honey, fish, cheese, marine products. Also garlic, vegetable oils, fruits, and vegetables.

The style of life

A negative influence on the functioning of the male reproductive system, the following factors: the exhaustion, the stress, the sauna, the smoking, poor working conditions, alcohol and drugs. Rare sexual relations lead to the stasis of sexual system. Even the sedentary lifestyle works negatively on fertility. If you arrange your lifestyle, it is possible to dispense with the application of the medication therapy.

The normal dream, which is controlled by the physical activity, the weight, the correction of the sex life, the proper and complete nutrition raise the tone of the reproductive system.

According to the latest indications of the statistics, one of every four men is able to conceive a child after a long but fruitful treatment. Efficacy in the treatment of male infertility in about 15% higher than that of success in the treatment of female infertility.