The inability adult male of the body fertilization is called infertility. The problem appears, as a general rule, in the multiple attempts of failure of the conception of the couple. According to the statistics, among the russians of the families in the 45% of the cases and put the sterility of men as the main cause of the inability to conceive a child.
The causes of male infertility
Such is the mindset that the first one goes to a doctor of the woman. And when, after the survey it is discovered that it is healthy, the reproductive system female is ready to conceive, arise suspicions of the couple.
For the success of fertilization and embryo development the following requirements are necessary:
- complete spermatogenesis correct sperm.
- the maturation of sperm.
- physiologically normal ejaculation;
- the activity of the sperm out of the male genital tract up to the time of the fusion with the egg and full fertilization.
The infertility in the man, it can be used as an innate disposition and acquired. Connatural to the inability of the fertilization develops due to different pathologies in the development of the testicles (cryptorchidism, hypogonadism, etc). Are common violations in the development of the urethra. Often diagnosed hypospadias, stricture. If these developmental abnormalities of the sperm gets into the vagina.
The diseases that lead to infertility in men
The acquired causes of male infertility many. More often this state is due to migrated diseases. Chronic inflammatory diseases alter the normal spermatogenesis, leading to the formation of abnormal sperm, difficulty in fertilization. Cause the inability to conceive can be the following pathologies:
- mumps (mumps);
- sexually transmitted diseases;
- chronic, inflammatory processes;
- abnormalities in the reproductive system (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, varicocele, hypogonadism);
- diabetes mellitus;
- injuries of the reproductive organs, surgical interventions;
- hormonal disorders;
- genetic factor.
Infertility in the male, the causes of which, in general, are comprehensive in nature, is established with greater frequency.
The factors that contribute to the development of the pathology
In addition to pathologies, accompanied by phenomena of inflammation, circulatory disorders, hormonal rearrangements, there are contributing factors. His presence compounded by the action of the main causes of the or is a mechanism in the development of the violations in the reproductive system of the organism.
Factors of infertility in men are varied:
- the work of the plagues of the production factors (ionizing radiation, vibration, chemicals, electromagnetic waves);
- the sedentary lifestyle is sedentary work;
- addictions (alcoholism, smoking);
- professional exercise bike;
- covers the clothes;
- the superheating and the supercooling of the organs of the pelvis;
- emotional overload, stress.
It is not so terrible, at first glance, all these causes have a negative impact on the indicators of sperm. Their qualitative and quantitative characteristics of it.
Types of infertility in the man and their characteristics
By the nature of the infertility can be of three types:
- Form secretory infertility is expressed in the inability of the reproductive glands on the development of the sufficient amount of active sperm. Often this is due to the violation of the vascularity of the tissues of the testicles. When the sex cells the male has the defects of its content in the seminal fluid has been drastically reduced.
- Autoimmune infertility. The rape of the fertile was the ability of the men in this case is a form of diagnosis and treatment. Factors of infertility, auto-immune the most frequent mechanism include trauma, surgical interventions. Antisperm antibodies perceive their own genitals of the cell as the alien invasive of antibodies. It reduces the mobility of the spermatozoa, may negatively influence the process of spermatogenesis. The sperm can't get in tservikalnuyu liquid.
- Excretory infertility. The cause of the excretory violations are transferred inflammatory disease, malformations of the urethra and sex glands. Cause infertility of this kind can obstruction of irrigation ditches, as well as aspermatism. This will modify the indices of semen quality: it reduces the concentration of sperm, their activity, appear pathological in the sexual cells.
If the conception when of autoimmune infertility has passed, however, the antibodies break the crushing of the zygote, affecting the development of an embryo, can be the cause of the interruption of the pregnancy.
The signs and symptoms of male infertility
The symptoms of infertility in men are often straight, of any nature. Sexy of the constitution, the sexual activity is reflected a little in the ability of fertility. As a general rule, the male infertile take very sexually active, are not experiencing signs of impotence, the impotence. The man with the most frequency itself is not aware of your problem. No warranty, expressed physical symptoms of discomfort general in the case of rape of fertile skills is not observed.
In 90% of cases of male infertility is almost asymptomatic. To he characterized by one essential feature: the absence of fertilization, with a life of regular sexual in the term of a year without use of contraception in the background of the reproductive capacity of the partner.
|Clear signs of male infertility||The indirect signs of the violation of the reproductive function|
Autoimmune and genetic deviations do not have clinical signs.
The variety of the causes of infertility in men, signs of the disease, do not have obvious manifestations, leading to delays to seek assistance of the specialists close. This insidious pathology discovered as a general rule, only after many years of fruitless attempts of the men to get posterity.
The diagnosis of male infertility
The diagnosis of infertility is defined after a thorough study of the body of men. The doctor collects a thorough medical history, discusses the factors that can cause a violation of the fertile era of the function. Some of the pathologies of development (hyposadias, cryptorchidism) are diagnosed even in the age of the newborn.
Varicoceles are discovered during a medical examination in the case of men with complaints of pain during intercourse. When performing the inspection will also detect hypogonadism.
More revealing are the following research techniques:
- the qualitative and quantitative indicators of seminal fluid;
- comprehensive blood and urine;
- immunological studies;
- sexually transmitted diseases (std);
- study of the secretion of the prostate;
- the analysis of dna.
In most cases, the transcription of spermogrammi gives a complete picture of the fertile was the ability of the men. This informative view on a microscopic and morphological analysis allows to judge about the mobility of the spermatozoa, their quantity. Identifies a seminogram defects in the structure of the cells to male sex, semen viscosity, acidity, etc
The realization of the ultrasound allows to exclude of the disease and the pathology of the prostate gland and the testicles. For the diagnosis of systemic inflammatory disease apply microscopic techniques to study of biological fluids.
Hormonal tests are designed to determine the blood concentration of testosterone, estrogen and other hormones. Their results evaluate the state of male hormones in the body, which is important in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.
If there is a suspected obstruction of the seminiferous tubules, the doctor will prescribe the x-ray with contrast substance. Men who suffer from varicocele, can be assigned to a Doppler.
If it is necessary, are assigned complementary methods of research, consult an endocrinologist, a back, a sex therapist.
It is worth noting that the men it is difficult to be decided in the diagnostic step because the greater part of the procedures that are perceived as negative, and another part is pretty painful. It is of the utmost importance to keep a spouse, so they can together overcome the difficulties encountered on the path to pregnancy.
The prevention of male infertility
The etiology of the occurrence of violations fertile was the ability of the male body is diverse. Therefore, the prevention of infertility is complex. Take care of the health of the men is due to the age of children. Are mandatory the regular visits of a surgeon and urologist at the period of puberty.
A healthy lifestyle is one of the activities of prevention of infertility. Moderate exercise, the work load physical – the promise to improve the functions of the reproductive system. It is important to the total of men from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. The undesirable frequent excess temperature (bathrooms, saunas) and of cold in the body.
A complete food, rich in proteins, nutrients, vitamins and micronutrients, it is a good prevention not only of infertility, but and good immunity. The food should be healthy, natural. Of the diet to exclude acute, smoked, fried dishes. The basis of the diet should be fish, meat, vegetables, and fruits. Plays an important role in the protection male of his body against stress factors and psychoemotional. Regular a full sexual life with the constant companion also a beneficial effect in fertile ability of men.
Infertility in men – the problem is not only medical, but also social. The rape of fertile strong ability of the half leads to emotional problems within the family, reduces the quality of the social life. Therefore, it is necessary as soon as possible needed, to start to lead a healthy life style, to eliminate the factors that contribute to the development of the reproductive function of erectile dysfunction in men.