Urethritis represents the chronic disease or acute inflammation of the urethra (the urethra). The disease is able to escape the contagious or world of form.
Causes of the occurrence of
The treatment of the urethritis begins with the definition of the causes of its emergence. Only after the cause has been installed, the doctor can determine the appropriate treatment for the patient.
Urethritis can be an infection source. The causal agents of a disease enter the body by sexual intercourse or by sharing objects of personal hygiene.
Non-infectious origin of the disease suggests that the urethritis has been obtained from sexual transmission. The reason for the occurrence of the disease can be well treated medical instruments, injuries of the urethra, allergic reactions, etc
The symptoms of urethritis
One of the first symptoms of the onset of the urethritis will become painful urination. Going to a professional preference it is at this stage, since there is a great chance to prevent further spread of the inflammation. If you keep ignoring unpleasant sensations that occur during urination, of the following symptoms are purulent. In some cases, one can observe the inflammation of the outside opening of the urethra.
Specific of the signs:
- For atc urethritis, an inflammation of the entire urethra. The symptoms can be similar to the symptoms of prostatitis.
- Urethritis acute, can determine if there are sudden changes of burning and pain while urinating. The lips of the urethra painted in a bright red color, appears the edema. There are strong secretion of the urethra.
- After the acute form of the disease may occur under acute. The selection of the urethra can be considerably reduced or disappear completely. The urine when under the of acute urethritis becomes transparent. May be present purulent thread.
- In the absence of timely treatment of urethritis may pass into a chronic form. Patients complain of phenomena neurotic. There may be a small selection of the urethra.
Urethritis are sometimes confused with prostatitis. Difficulty and pain during urination are characteristic of both diseases. That is why employment the diagnosis is not valid. In addition, there is no independent action for the treatment of the disease.
The possibility for patients to see a specialist, it is usually very difficult to choose and to decide to what doctor it is best to go: the venereal diseases or urologist. Venereal diseases recommended to go for those that the casual sex are not uncommon. If the patient has a permanent sexual partner or at the time of the couple who can not start by seeing a urologist.
Types of urethritis
Urethritis is divided into two groups – non-infectious and infection. The last variant can be triggered by two groups of microorganisms: specific (escherichia coli, staphylococcus, etc,) and specific (causing sexually transmitted diseases). We are going to consider are the main varieties of the infection of urethritis.
When it is swallowed, no specific pathogens of the bacterial flora in the urethra (in the majority of cases, this is in the case of gender relations), it can result in urethritis. The disease also frequently occurs after prolonged use of a catheter in the bladder or transuretralnih endoscopic manipulation. Urethritis is divided into:
- Primary. Can have acute and chronic form. Acute bacterial urethritis usually is without any express warranty of the symptoms and is not specific to a period of incubation. The urethra stands out the pus and mucus. Held the pain during the emptying of the bladder, burning and itching in the urethra. Available mild swelling in the area of the outside opening and on the mucous membrane of the urethra. Blood in the semen and disorders of ejaculation can be observed in the cases in which the process involved seminal of the lump on the back of the urethra.
- High school. It can develop when the local availability of the inflammatory process of any infectious disease, for example, pneumonia. Secondary non-specific urethritis in the majority of cases are long-term and latent. Adults, patients may complain of pain when urinating. You can produce a small situation-purulent in the morning hours. Children, unlike adults, rarely complain of pain when urinating. You experience congestion, and the adhesion of sponges of the outside opening of the urethra.
In the treatment of urethritis is necessary to take into account the sensitivity of the pathogen to one or other medication, as well as the pathogenesis and etiology. If urethritis runs parallel with cystitis, the doctor prescribes a comprehensive treatment, which necessarily includes the physical therapy.
If the total of the therapy is insufficient, may be given a local treatment, for example, the instillation into the urethra of the solutions of collargol, silver, etc
Disease-causing organisms are made gonorrhea that are introduced into the body during the sexual act. In addition, infection can occur through objects of common use, for example, a towel.
The treatment of gonorrheal of urethritis is performed only under the supervision of a doctor. Lately the disease is cured with the help of cephalosporins, because it was observed that gonorrhoea are less susceptible to the traditional penicillin. After the completion of the treatment, you must try the sick in the presence in its organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The patient makes the call of a provocation, which is repeated at regular intervals of time. Blenorrgico urethritis leaves no immunity. That is why there is the likelihood of reinfection.
Urethritis is caused by the fungus
This type of urethritis is very unlikely. The disease may occur as a result of the defeat of the urethra of yeast fungi. In most cases, the onset of the disease becomes the consequence of prolonged therapy with antibiotics. In addition, the data of the views of the urethritis can be spread by sexual contact. A variant of the disease can be almost asymptomatic. Are possible whitish discharge from the urethra, itching, and burning. If to establish the diagnosis, the patient is taking antibiotics, the doctor cancels and replaces medications anti-fungal medications.
Often the onset of the disease favors the virus conjunctivitis, which develops in the urethra. The virus has the property of multiplying in the epithelial cells of the cervix, the vagina, the urethra and the conjunctiva. In doing so, it produces inflammation of the corresponding organ.
The transmission of the infection is possible through sexual intercourse. During this variant of the disease is usually indolent. Viral urethritis can be accompanied by the defeat of the joints. During treatment may appear some difficulties. The broad-spectrum antibiotics that are often combined with corticosteroid hormones.
This type of urethritis distinguish white, foamy, the selection of the urethra. You may experience a slight itching. The development of the disease is initiated through 5-15 days after infection. Chronic Trichomonas urethritis can be prostatitis of the same class. The complication is observed in 15-20% of cases. To prevent a new infection, the treatment is performed from both partners. If necessary, you can perform a repeat course.
Contrary to the popular belief that the urethritis is only of men with the disease, the disease often can be found in the women. However, taking into account the fact that the urethra of the female body is significantly shorter male out of the urethra, inflammation of women can be asymptomatic and without pain. It is easier to discover for himself Neisseria gonorrhoeaeth urethritis, as it is accompanied by severe pain and the discharge is purulent from the urethra.
If the patient did not go to a specialist on time, she starts cystitis, that is to say, inflammation of the bladder. The symptoms of both diseases are so similar that urethritis can be taken for cystitis, because the main symptom is the frequent urge to urinate. The causes of urethritis women can be:
- the genital infections;
- the supercooling;
- errors in the diet;
- gynecological diseases.
Less common reasons for the emergence of urethritis can lead:
- The medical intervention. When the realization of cystoscopy and catheterization is sufficient and competent, the physician may damage the walls of the urethra or become infected, which favors the development of the disease.
- Exposure to the radiation.
- Urolithiasis. When have been formed crystals in the kidneys and the sand that passed through the urethra, which damage the wall of the urethra.
Urethritis in women as well as men, have complications. In addition to the cystitis, one of the main complications becomes pyelonephritis. In addition, chronic urethritis in the absence of treatment, it can lead to deformation of the urethra, narrowing. Deformation complicates the process of urination.
The treatment of urethritis women involves 3 main stages:
- The first step is to remove the inflammation itself of the urethra;
- In the second phase should be to restore the normal microflora of the vagina, especially if the urethritis has been called the genre of the infection;
- In the third step is to take all the measures necessary for the recovery of the immune system. The increase of the resistance makes the body less susceptible to a different type of infections.
Prevention of urethritis of women has its own characteristics:
- you must solve the problems of the chair – constipation and diarrhea;
- you should avoid the combination of anal and vaginal sex acts, as well as random sexual relations;
- the visit to the gynecologist should be regular, regardless of the presence of symptoms.
The diagnosis of urethritis
In the first stage of a specialist, it is necessary to identify the cause of urethritis. To do this, it is necessary to find the pathogens. However, if the urethra does not stand out the pus, and the cause of the appearance of the disease will not be easy. To extract the pus, are used thermal, chemical, and physical tests of provocation. The more easy it is considered to be chemical: the patient takes the medication, after which begins an abundant selection of pus. Thermal and mechanical forms more complex and painful. To get the pus, the mucosa of the urethra irritate thin metal of the tip test (physical way) or temperature shock (thermal method).
There are and the most modern methods of detection of pathogens of the disease. In many medical facilities use of the polymerase a chain reaction. This research method involves the selection of any biological risk, the fluid of the patient of dna of the pathogen of urethritis.
Patients who have ever received an injury of the organs of the pelvis, and may order an x-ray of the urethra. Through the contrast of the x-ray can discover the defects of the wall of the urethra. In addition, for the study it is widely applied urethroscopy, in which is inserted into the urethra, the special optical unit.
The treatment of urethritis
In most cases for the treatment of urethritis apply antibiotics. For best results, you should take into account the data of the antibiogram. This means that before assigning the patient to the antibiotic, the physician must determine, in the measurement of high sensitivity of the patient to the medication. The selection of antibiotics is done through a couple of days after the patient has been diagnosed. During these days the patient must not remain without medical assistance. The patient may temporarily assign of antibiotics at the group of penicillins, that is to say, with broad-spectrum antibiotics. In the currently widely applied semi-synthetic penicillins. This group of drugs affects the excitation, rather than be resistant to the evolution of the person. If this group of medicines will not be successful, the patient can be assigned to more effective antibiotics. It is also possible the designation of antiseptic for the washing of the urethra. The washing should be done only by the specialist.
Passing the treatment of urethritis, the patient should follow a diet that involves the resignation of the products, increase the secretion of the mucous membrane of the urethra. To such products, in the first place, are sharp, condiments, and spices.
It should be remembered that the rehabilitation (psychological) after the urethritis you may not need the patient and his partner. Often, the identification of the urethritis members of the ignorance begin to blame others of treason. After the patient was diagnosed, the visit to the doctor you can share. The specialist will explain the companion of the sick, that the presence of inflammation of the urethra is not indicative of the infidelity of men.
The probability that the disease can be reduced to a minimum if you follow some simple rules.
- In the first place, you should avoid the casual affairs.
- The compliance of the rules of personal hygiene, it also reduces the likelihood of infection.
- The rejection of bad habits: smoking and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.
- Regular preventive surveillance with the urologist.
- The compliance of the diet: do not abuse the acute, marinated, salted the food.
- The timely treatment of infectious diseases of the organs of the urinary system.
- Prevent hypothermia of the body.
The greatest risk of contracting the disease suffer men suffering from burning of the pancreas, the intestine, the gall bladder and some other internal organs. Is large, the probability of infection and for those who often suffers from angina.