Prostatitis in men

healthy prostate and prostatitis

Prostatitis in men belongs to the group of andrological urogenital pathologies (exclusively male). The disease occurs in the form of acute or chronic inflammation. This is the most common urological disease today. Previously, it was believed that it manifested itself only at the age of 45 to 65 years, now doctors increasingly diagnose "prostatitis" in young people aged 20 to 30 years. The disease has gotten much younger.

The nature of the prostate injury depends on the sexual habit of the person.

  1. The defeat of the prostate gland in boys, before puberty, theoretically can be, but the inflammation of the undeveloped gland is not considered an independent disease.
  2. In sexually active men, prostatitis often develops as acute inflammation.
  3. The pathology of the gland, in mature and elderly people, can manifest itself in the form of three independent diseases (chronic prostatitis, adenoma - benign hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma - malignant hyperplasia).
  4. In people subjected to castration (chemical, physical, by radiation), the gland atrophies.

The prostate gland (prostate) is the accessory gland of the male genital area. It is located at the junction of the urethra and the ejaculatory ducts. The significance of the gland before puberty is poorly understood. In a mature man, the prostate gland:

  • produces a secretion that dilutes sperm, ensures the vitality of sperm in the genital tract of a woman;
  • produces prostaglandins, substances that promote increased blood supply to the penis before the onset of an erection, together with the testicles, it participates in the production of the hormone testosterone;
  • provides a rapid evacuation (release) of sperm from the urethra and participates in the formation of orgasm;
  • through reflex mechanisms prevents urine from entering the sperm during sexual arousal, participates in the complex mechanism of erection.

The prostate is an organ that is vulnerable to disease-causing agents. It is inevitably involved in the pathology of the walls of the urethra, the bladder, the vas deferens. A powerful stream of blood, lymph, circulating through the branched vascular system of the damaged gland, provokes the phenomenon of stagnation, edema of the organ, aggravates the pathology. The gland is well innervated, the damage is accompanied by pain.

What men should know about prostatitis

Prostatitis is an inflammatory disease of the prostate gland (prostate), most often caused by an infectious agent that enters the prostate from the urethra itself, the bladder, and the adjacent rectum. However, an infection in itself does not mean the development of a disease, for this, as they say, "a favorable combination of circumstances" is necessary.

What are the factors that predispose to the appearance of prostatitis:

  1. Prolonged sedentary work and sedentary lifestyle. The risk group includes drivers, programmers and anyone who spends their workday without getting up from a chair to walk and warm up.
  2. Regular alteration of the stool in the form of constipation.
  3. Severe or repeated hypothermia of the whole organism.
  4. Excessively active sex life or prolonged abstinence. Both are not in any way helpful for the normal functioning of the prostate gland.
  5. Overeating, spicy food and alcohol abuse, constant stress.

The prostate is a very small organ 3 cm long and 4 cm wide, weighing only 20-25 grams. However, the secret of the prostate has bactericidal properties, therefore, the inflammatory process in the gland can develop only in the presence of stagnation in this organ, when its secret loses its properties.

How prostatitis manifests itself in men

Acute and chronic forms of prostatitis are distinguished:

  • The symptoms of acute prostatitis are characterized by severe inflammation in the prostate area. In this case, the patient has a strong fever (body temperature rises to 38-39 degrees), pain in the groin and perineum, pain when urinating and defecating.
  • Chronic prostatitis worries men less, so they may not immediately pay attention to the characteristic symptoms of the disease. The patient's body temperature occasionally rises to 37 degrees, he is sometimes bothered by unpleasant sensations when going to the bathroom, a little mucus or pus is released from the urethra. Such discharge is one of the typical signs of chronic prostatitis.

Signs of prostatitis in men

There are six signs (precursors) of prostatitis: dysuria syndrome. Use as clinical markers is conditional. However, the presence of two of the six symptoms is reason to consult a urologist.

  1. The urine stream descends slowly or its range is less than 20 cm.
  2. Difficulty urinating, drop by drop.
  3. Painful urination.
  4. Intermittence, break, jet splash, process duration.
  5. Sensation of not completely emptying the bladder.
  6. Frequent urination at night.

It is strictly forbidden to draw clinical conclusions when these signs are detected. Prostatitis has a complex pathogenesis, with the inclusion of various mechanisms in it. It is impossible to treat the disease by focusing on general clinical symptoms. Contact a urologist to determine symptoms, nature of damage, stage of disease, and treatment appointment. Diagnosis and treatment are carried out taking into account the organs and systems involved in the pathogenesis. In some cases, it is necessary to consult a venereologist, surgeon, oncologist.

Symptoms of prostatitis in men

Prostatitis can occur in the form of acute and chronic inflammation. The acute forms develop as catarrhal, follicular, and parenchymal inflammation. The manifestations of chronic prostatitis are associated with a concomitant disease.

Prostatitis symptoms detected by clinical methods and functional tests. The following symptoms are of great importance in recognizing the nature of the pathology, the causes and the mechanisms of the body's defense reactions.

  • Frequent urination with prostatitis.In a healthy person, the maximum amount of urge to urinate does not exceed 10 to 12 times a day, usually 4 to 5 times. The daily volume of urine in a healthy adult is 1000-2000 ml. The volume of urine at which urgency occurs is 120-170 ml, the accumulation of urine of more than 350 ml causes a strong desire to empty the bladder. The inflammation products of prostatitis constantly irritate the receptors in the walls of the urinary organs, which causes urination:
    • Frequent urination (frequency), while the daily volume of urine does not increase;
    • Urination in small portions, the products of inflammation send false signals to the receptors about the filling of a half empty bladder, after emptying the feeling of fullness remains;
    • Painful urination (stranguria) due to narrowing of the urethra by an inflamed prostate;
    • Difficulty urinating due to compression of the urethra by the inflamed gland, sometimes prostatitis is accompanied by the inability to empty the bladder (ischuria);
    • Night urination (nocturia), irritated bladder walls give a constant signal of urine production.
    • Temperature with prostatitis.Characterized by an increase in body temperature to subfebrile and feverish values. High temperature accompanies purulent prostatitis in the early stages of septic shock. In the late stage of septic shock, in contrast, a low temperature (hypothermia) is characteristic of 35-36 ° C. Low temperatures are dangerous for humans due to the tendency of blood platelets to disseminated intravascular coagulation (syndromeDEC). The prognosis for prostatitis complicated by sepsis in the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome is cautious or unfavorable.
    • Blood in the urine with prostatitis.The symptom of hematuria (blood in the urine) is a rare but very dangerous symptom. Persistent bleeding is difficult to stop. There are several causes of hematuria in prostatitis, including:
      • purulent fusion of the gland with a portion of a blood vessel and perforation of the vessel in the urethra;
      • accidental trauma during instrumental examinations of the genitourinary organs;
      • prostatitis complicated by hyperplasia, most often malignant.
      • Pain syndrome.Complicated prostatitis is accompanied by pain outside of urination. Sometimes the pain occurs intermittently, such as during a bowel movement. The cause of the pain is the constant irritation of the gland by the products of inflammation. A dull (aching) ache is often noted in the perineum and anus.

      Laboratory tests that confirm the symptoms of prostatitis. They are used to clarify the presence of inflammation, to determine the severity of the inflammatory and septic process.

      • Complete blood count. The indicators that confirm prostatitis are: an increase in the number of leukocytes, a change in the leukogram towards an increase in the number of stinging cells, an increase in ESR.
      • Urinalysis. It reveals latent pyuria (pus in the urine) and bacteriuria (bacterial contamination) in the first portion of urine. Use the three-vessel method to detect pus and latent bacteria at the beginning, middle, or end of urination. Repeatedly, with a frequency of several days, a bacteriological examination of the urine is performed to determine the change in the species of the bacterial flora.
      • Blood Sowing Tank. The method is indicated for symptoms of progressive sepsis accompanied by debilitating (agitated) fever.
      • The study of the cellular link of immunity in prostatitis complements the understanding of the nature of the pathogenesis, to predict the probability of developing sepsis.

      Instrumental methods used to clarify the symptoms of prostatitis. The following methods have diagnostic value.

      • Transrectal ultrasound (through the rectum) method (TRUS). Its high diagnostic value is noted. The method has contraindications associated with the prohibition of massage of the gland, at certain stages of the disease.
      • X-rays of the bladder. Choose views that are convenient for examining the prostate. Before the x-ray, urografin, a radiopaque substance inert to the body, is injected into the bladder.
      • Needle biopsies of the prostate have strictly limited indications for prostatitis.

      Causes of prostatitis in men

      There are several groups of causes of prostatitis, including:

      1. Complication of a man's past diseases (PPP infections, colds, inflammation of the pelvic organs, complicated by staphylococcal infections and other bacteria, viral fungal agents, especially against the background of reduced immunity and general resistance of the body), chronic Gynecological infections in a woman who is a sexual partner.
      2. Urethral reflux. Violation of the prostate's ability to prevent urine from flowing back into the reproductive ducts is called urethral reflux. The result is bacterial seeding of the prostate. Urethral reflux is the consequence of inadequate catheterization, as well as previous inflammation of the urethra. In this case, urethritis occurs, a pathological increase in the lumen of the urethra. Urethral - vesiculoseminal reflux, the seeding of bacteria is combined with the formation of calculi (stones) in the prostate and ejaculatory ducts.
      3. Violation of the rhythm of sexual activity, including lack or excess of sexual intercourse, regular delay in ejaculation.
      4. Venous blood stagnation in the urogenital organs of the small pelvis of men is a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle (hemorrhoids, sexual disorders, other reasons);
      5. Hormonal imbalance associated with insufficient production of male hormones by the sex glands, resulting in a general weakening of skeletal and smooth muscle tone, impaired erectile function, and other disorders.

      Classification of prostatitis

      Distinguish between bacterial and non-bacterial prostatitis:

      1. Bacterial prostatitis is caused by pathogenic microorganisms that enter the prostate gland from the outside. These include streptococci, staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Proteus, and others. Many bacteria are part of the normal flora of our body, but under certain conditions they enter the prostate and cause inflammation. Prostatitis can also develop as a result of sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, gardnerellosis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis.
      2. The non-infectious prostatitis group includes:
        • Congestive (congestive) prostatitis. It is caused by congestion in the small pelvis. Incomplete ejaculation, sexual excesses, prolonged abstinence, interrupted intercourse - all this contributes to venous stasis in the pelvic organs.
        • Sclerotic prostatitis. It is characterized by a decrease in the size and functions of the prostate gland, the compaction of its tissues as a consequence of the death of prostate cells with their replacement by sclerotic tissue. One of the reasons for the development of this form of the disease is frequent constipation, the intake of certain medications and multiple infections. This prostatitis, unfortunately, cannot be treated.
        • Calculous prostatitis. The result of the development of calculous prostatitis is the presence of phosphate and oxalate stones in the gland. Upon reaching a large size, they cause acute pain in the urethra. The treatment method consists in dissolving the formed stones.
        • Prostatopotic prostatitis. This disease causes chronic pelvic pain, but its etiology is not fully understood. It is believed that it can be triggered by a reverse flow of secretion, damage to the muscles of the perineum, pathology of the bladder neck, and psychological factors.
        • Atypical forms. In the atypical form, the patient may complain of pain in the legs, lower back, and sacrum, which is unusual for characteristic symptoms of prostatitis. The result of treatment depends on the duration of the disease, the activity of inflammatory processes and the presence of complications.

      Failure to deal with prostatitis treatment, in its careless form, leads to decreased potency, infertility, depression, exhausting pain in the perineum, and other complications.

      Why is prostatitis dangerous, the consequences of prostatitis

      The consequences depend on age, the state of the immune system, the presence of bad habits. So, in people of the older age group, with weakened immunity, with a history of alcoholism, drug addiction, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the consequences of the disease are more serious.

      • Influence of prostatitis on potency.A damaged gland, with decompensation of functional activity, reduces the production of substances involved in the formation of an erection of the male genital organ. The consequence of prostatitis is a slow release of seminal fluid during intercourse, a decrease in the fullness of sensations during intercourse, in advanced forms of erectile dysfunction.
      • Influence of prostatitis on conception. A damaged prostate drastically reduces the activity of producing a high-quality secretion, which is necessary to maintain the activity of sperm in a woman's birth canal. The secret of the inflamed prostate gland, entering the birth canal of a woman during sexual intercourse, reacts with the immune rejection of the female body, the development of gynecological diseases and the inability to conceive.
      • Prostatitis causes damage within the gland and the body. Inflammation complicated by microflora increases the risk of prostate abscess. Abscess formation - purulent fusion of a part of the parenchyma of the gland with the formation of a capsule around the focus. The disease with the formation of mineralized stones in the cavity is a consequence of the prostate complicated by the reflux of the damaged prostate. The consequence of prostatitis is also: acute ischuria, urolithiasis, kidney failure, inflammation of the genitourinary organs and other diseases.

      Is it possible to have sex with prostatitis

      It has been proven that the arrhythmia of intimate life is one of the causes of inflammation of the gland. Regular ejaculation with moderate frequency has a positive effect on the pathogenesis of prostatitis with subclinical and moderate clinical manifestations of prostatitis. Some therapeutic manipulations and stages of the disease involve a temporary prohibition of sex. For detailed recommendations, consult your doctor. Have sex with prostatitis, observe moderation and safety of intimate life.

      Is prostatitis transmitted sexually? Prostatitis is a purely male disease that does not have a specific viral, bacterial or fungal origin. Meanwhile, inflammation of the prostate represents a danger to gynecological health. Semen, containing products of inflammation, entering the female genital organs, against the background of a decrease in the protective barriers of the birth canal, is a real threat to the conception and gestation of the fetus. A healthy lifestyle and reliable male contraception is an easy way to protect sexual partners from mutual problems.

      Is it possible to recover from prostatitis once and for all?

      Most men who have already undergone treatment for prostatitis more than once are interested in one question: is it possible to get rid of this unpleasant disease for good? According to experts, the effectiveness of treatment largely depends on the presence and severity of irreversible consequences that have occurred in the prostate. It can be scars, stones, calcifications.

      To stop the further development of the inflammatory process in the early stages, only a timely visit to a doctor can. In this case, irreversible complications do not develop in the prostate and there is a possibility of a complete cure. When areas of sclerotic tissue have already formed - scars, there are small calcifications and stones that cannot be removed in any way, then repeated inflammation will most likely occur. This is chronic prostatitis.

      In addition to treatment, an important factor to overcome this ailment is also the extent to which the patient is willing to change his previous lifestyle: irregular sex life and constantly sitting in a chair. If he does not want such changes, then with great confidence we can say that soon the inflammatory process will return again. It is with the unwillingness of the patient to exclude these negative factors from his life that the idea that prostatitis is incurable is connected.

      The duration, the treatment regimen is determined by the doctor, based on the results of physical, laboratory and instrumental studies. Antibacterial drugs are the foundation of prostatitis therapy. The use of vitamins, physiotherapeutic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibiotic procedures is shown.

      Diet for prostatitis

      Compliance with diet, use of a certain set of products:

      • reduces pain
      • improves the microcirculation of blood and lymph in the vessels of the gland,
      • strengthens the protective functions of the body,
      • normalizes bowel function
      • reduces urine output at night.

      Products for prostatitis. Obsolete:

      1. Strong coffee, spicy dishes - increase blood flow to the gland, stimulate pain;
      2. Fat, fatty meat, eggs, flour - increase the deposition of cholesterol on the walls of the capillaries, reduce the microcirculation of blood flow in the gland;
      3. Alcoholic beverages: reduce immunity;
      4. Foods containing coarse fiber, salty and spicy foods: modify intestinal motility;
      5. A large amount of fluid (at night), salty, smoked foods (during illness) - increase the volume of fluid, retain it in the body.

      It is advisable to include in the diet: vegetable salads seasoned with olive oil, vegetables and fruits grown in the region of residence, natural juices, nuts, dried fruits, boiled lean meat. A set of products for prostatitis can be checked with a nutritionist.

      Preventive measures

      Prevention is based on simple rules, easy to follow.

      • Take long walks regularly (this walking style is the most physiological);
      • Eat right, lead a healthy lifestyle;
      • Use male contraception.

      To avoid the development of prostatitis and its complications, you should immediately contact a urologist for any ailment of the genital organs. You also don't need to wait for symptoms to appear, but at least once a year to see a doctor yourself. In a medical institution, you will undergo an examination and you will know for sure that your health in the genital area is fine.

      Do not delay visiting a urologist and those who suffer from constipation, abuse alcohol, spicy and smoked foods, those who do not actively play sports and who have a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Due to the high risk of disease, these people must undergo a mandatory examination, even if there is no indication for it.

      As you know, men do not like to go to the doctor and when they are already unbearable, it turns out that the disease has taken a chronic course. But the course of treatment could have been completed much earlier. Now, with chronic prostatitis, the treatment will take at least 1-2 months.